Dosage-effectiveness of modified clay flocculating red tide organisms: Mechanical mechanism and mathematical model


A neurotoxin produced by algae that causes red tides (coastal blooms). Domoic acid is concentrated by crustaceans and is toxic to crustacean eaters. Some parts of the world have red tides only at certain times of the year, while others only have red tides when human activity contributes to them. Several scientific studies have found that pollution that raises water temperatures can increase the frequency of red tides. Other studies have shown that nitrates and phosphates in agricultural wastewater can cause red tide. However, a clear relationship between human activity and the occurrence of red tides is currently unknown. The frequency of red tides has increased over the past 30 years, which may suggest that they are caused by human activity. Increased occurrence of red tides may adversely affect the availability of food sources for marine animals. But at this time, scientists aren't exactly sure what causes red tide. It is unclear why some dinoflagellate species produce harmful toxins and others do not. Scientists are calling on governments to deploy better and more frequent red tide monitoring and detection systems. Although the annual mortality and serious illness rates from seafood poisoning are relatively low in the United States, new toxins emerge regularly, making it difficult to protect the environment and human health. Brevenal can also be used in Florida to save manatees (a rare aquatic mammal found only in certain tropical coastal waters) that are at risk of red tide poisoning. Red tide is a specific term for the aquatic phenomenon commonly referred to as algal bloom. This is an unexplained increase in the number of microorganisms. The increase in numbers is thought to be due to changes in salinity, temperature, water depth, and possibly human intervention. Dinoflagellates, which contain various natural neurotoxins such as brevetoxin, domoic acid, and saxitoxin, can cause severe turbid patches in surface waters with a reddish discoloration when present in sufficient concentrations. The tinged discoloration is the etymology of the word "red tide". When these toxins are present in dinoflagellates that cause a 'red tide', it is called a harmful algae bloom (HAB). In such cases, these HABs can be eaten by fish, birds, marine mammals, and humans, resulting in unwanted symptoms and sometimes death. Different types of phytoplankton contain pigments of various colors, from green to brown to red, so depending on which species of phytoplankton grow to high enough concentrations, the color of the water will vary. Red tides have occurred regularly in oceans around the world throughout recorded history. The Red Sea is believed to have been named after algal blooms in biblical times. In recent decades, however, red tides have become more common in areas where algal blooms have never been a problem. Since 1828, red tides called aguajes have been recorded. It occurs more frequently in the summer when the water temperature rises, and it seems to be related to the El Niño Current. Coastal upwelling events are also known to be essential for the development of Gonyaulax tamarensis blooms in the Gulf of Maine.